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1/ English Language as a Requirement Course for Information Students – A Content Analysis of English Syllabus in the Faculty of Islamic and Arabic Studies – Published by The Canadian Centre of Science and Education in September 2009. Vol. 2,No.3 ( Available online in ( www.ccsenet.org).

Abstract

The study investigated the importance of two elements in the process of syllabus design (ends / means specifications, program implementation) in the faculty of Islamic and Arabic studies, Nile Valley University, designed in 1995.Results indicate that the ends/means specifications stage is used to present the general aims and the objective of each course. A general description of each course is also given. Program implementation is completely left for the teacher’s decision.

The paper shows related literature review for information students. This kind of literature review (linguistic contents) may however change the Program Implementation to a highly individualistic and subjective stage. Materials writing are left only for teachers and this may cause variations in the linguistic contents of the prescribed courses and this in turn may lead to many hidden syllabuses. Teachers training as a unique step in program implementation stage is lacking since there is no ESP teacher program available

/ The Interpretation of Implicature –A comparative study Between Implicature in Linguistics and Journalism- (Academy Publisher – Qulu, Finland.January2010.Vol.1.No.1(available in

http://www.academypublisher.com/jltr).

Abstract

—This study explores implicature as a pragmatic inference in some journalist texts. Content analysis has proved the existence of the inference in all types of news reporting. The study also reveals that implicature as a vital pragmatic element in the process of communication which bridges the gap between what is literally said and what is intentionally meant. Analysis of implicature has proved

its importance to discourse analysis theories and the new English syllabi since it caters for what is said and what is understood in the process of communication. Sentence linguistics which has been used in school-classes since 1850 has been challenged by this pragmatic inference. That is, traditional grammar concentrated mainly on the structures of sentences and their internal systems. Implicature,however, employs the whole situation and it uses all the circumstances surrounding the utterance in order to really conceive the intended

meaning of the producer of that utterance. Implicature as well plays a vital role in media language by bridging the gap between the different cultures. The paper shows this inference as a tool of cultural transfer and how far it can be harnessed as interdisciplinary system to illustrate linguistic pragmatic theory as well as explaining how media language works. Index Terms— implicature, inference, and

interdisciplinary

3/Educational Research Contents and Objectives: An Empirical Study on the Schools of River Nile State – Sudan. Published in IJBSS on January 22, 2011 Vol. 2 No. 2 Available in http://www.ijbssnet.com/current.html .

Abstract

The study assumes that the faculties of education in Sudan have given a firm emphasis only in the issue of teaching, ignoring completely the development of human resources in the environmental context and regional levels in which these

College of Education are founded. These colleges have overlooked the establishment of research centers to develop the human resources in the state or the region .Most recent studies on education indicate the objective of such establishments as to increase the awareness of knowledge in many areas and then apply the appropriate solutions to help direct teacher education and professional development inside schools. To test the validity of this hypothesis the paper has followed the descriptive analysis and distributed a questionnaire to ten of headmasters in primary schools and ten of headmasters in secondary schools in the state of the River Nile. Data was derived from interviews and document analysis of some Arabic references about education research. The questionnaire focused on the extent to which the aforementioned headmaster's schools have benefited from these existing colleges of education in the state and of the University of the Nile Valley during the past five years. The research found that despite the primary aim of these research centers which is to keep pace with the development of staff and the development of education research, but unfortunately such academic bodies are still lacking in the region.

4 /Presupposition as a Pragmatic Inference –Toward a New conceptualization of the Term . Published in IJBSS on march 22, 2011. Vol.2. No. 7. ( Available in http://www..ijbssnet.com/current.html)

Abstract

The paper glosses the pragmatic inference of presupposition in a way different from what has been mentioned elsewhere in the previous researches. All researches conducted on this inference viewed it as an internally linguistic system. To have figured it that way, the writer of This paper thinks that is the main reason which made a linguist like Levinson(1983) to consider it as partially understood after Frere's (1952) remarks on the subject . Basing its data on some authentic texts taken from media besides making use of the English philosopher François Bacon's Four Idols, the writer of this paper has contributed on the field by considering this inference as an external and cultural linguistic item which can always help extend the discourse analysis of interlocutors. Many current studies have described linguistics pragmatics as to read into or compute out from a particular utterance meanings which truth conditional semantics could not captured. It is believed, however, that there is a paradox here to describe linguistic pragmatics as such, and at the other extreme to describe presupposition as a pragmatic inference which triggers its meaning from the internal system of language. Drawing on some literature on the subject, the writer of this paper has attempted to reconcile between these two extremes. The difference which makes the differences among pragmatics inferences of deixis, implicature, speech acts and presupposition has clearly shown in this paper. It has been observed that the literature on these inferences has described them as if they were one inference, however, they are different in the job they do to linguistic pragmatics. The present work illustrates these differences.

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5 / Factors Hampering Scientific Research in Sudan University – With Reference to problem formulation and Hypotheses. Published in IJHSS in April , 2011. Vol. 1, No 4,  Available in

http://www.ijhssnet.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=85&Ite

mid=9 ) -

Abstract

Supervisors in Sudan are heavily depended upon when conferring a post graduate degree and this technique of supervisor's reports, however, may not fully regard all the factors that hampering research process. The paper investigates what at first appears to be a unique constraint in designing of researches whose variables always are carried by people (elements). Most previous analyses, however, illustrate only the administrative factor that hampering the actual conducting of research. The paper adds new factors which never been investigated before. That is, the statutory factor and conceptual factors in its next sections. The paper also elucidates both quantitative and qualitative approaches are important factors when dealing with scientific research problems and hypotheses, and how the later is more important when other research supporters such as research centers are lacking. The qualitative approach is also an important element in facilitating the writing of history textbooks. Key Words: Supervisors, Sudan, statutory, conceptual

6/Deixis Category as Favorable Syllabus Materials A Critical Study in Sudan

Practical Integrated National English. Published in Theory and Practice in Language

Studies, Vol. 1, No. 7, pp. 811-820, July 2011 . ACADEMY PUBLISHER in Finland.

Available in http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/issue/archive .

Abstract

Having synthesized many findings of studies that have recently been conducted on Sudan Practical Integrated National English (SPINE); having tried to move inguistic pragmatics to the area of applied linguistics, the researcher found that these studies' findings have unanimously attributed SPINE problems only to typing errors and the use of Sudanese culture to teach English language. By comparing random selected mate-rials from both SPINE the current syllabus and the READERS an earlier English syllabus, the researcher at-tempts in this paper to provide general framework of using deixis as a pragmatic inference as a helpful item in deciding and revitalizing the syllabus materials writing process hich is considered as the most important stage of curriculum development. Considerable number of studies in syllabus design have viewed language learning through the 'subject' or knowledge offered by the given materials, how these materials account for ways in which teachers and learners interact with each other, how materials develop problem-solving abilities, and to what extent materials can transmit to the learners attitudes and values presented in the syllabus texts . The present study, however, investigated four aspects in both the aforementioned syllabi. Those are the number of paragraphs in each syllabus, the mechanism of sentence functional perspective, error and mistakes, and the structuring of deixis category in the two mentioned syllabi. The study has arrived at that it would be possible for English language syllabus designers in general to predict, and for SPINE designer in particular to have predicted proximate guides of what the EFL students will learn if the mentioned areas are seriously considered.

7/ Extra activities as a potentially Requirement in a Textbook syllabus .( published in Alzaiem alazhari university scientific journal).

8 / Sudanese Faculties of Education and the Ideology of Culture and Curriculum Development - Published in The Nile scientific Journal in 2005 / Sudan.

9/ Social Research Design – A New Configuration – published in Shendi University

2011/ Sudan